With age, the body will experience many changes, including appetite. Thus, people who are elderly tend to have a poor appetite, even susceptible to anorexia. If left this condition will make the weight of the elderly decreased. So, how to manage his diet? how is the elderly nutrition guide supposed to be?
Elderly appetite decreases, what causes it?
There are various things that cause elderly no app etite not even feel hungry at all. Generally, it is caused by various natural changes that occur in the body when it begins to age.
Changes that occur in the elderly, among others:
- Decreased levels of certain hormones that directly affect the appetite
- Decreased metabolic abilities in the body.
- Nerves are insensitive, making it difficult for the elderly to smell and feel the taste of food.
- The amount of saliva decreases, making the food difficult to digest.
- Experiencing dysphagia or difficult conditions of swallowing.
- Reduced amount of stomach acid.
- Peristaltic movement of the intestine is done to digest food is slowing down.
- Ability to absorb nutrients decreased.
All these changes automatically make the elderly appetite less. Therefore, there should be proper eating arrangements so that the elderly do not experience drastic weight loss and lack of nutrients.
How much energy does the elderly need?
Basically, energy needs will vary from person to person. This will be affected by age, gender, physical activity, and other things. But energy needs will decline with age.
Estimated, energy needs will be reduced by 70-100 calories every 10 years of age In Nutrition Adequacy Nation Indonesia, the energy adequacy of elderly per day is:
50-64 years: 2300 calories
58-80 years old: 1900 calories
50-64 years: 1900 calories
58-80 years: 1550 calories
We recommend that the elderly meet the daily energy needs in order not to lose weight.
Talk about the elderly nutritional needs, is it what is needed?
Nutritional substances elderly who cannot be missed certainly carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. Carbohydrate requirements for the elderly range from 45-65 percent of the total daily energy requirement.
For example rice, bread, potatoes, sago, cereals, pasta, cassava, vermicelli, and other staple foods.
Protein is very important for the body, namely as the growth and development of every cell in the body. Protein is also important for maintaining immunity of the elderly. For the elderly, the protein requirement is 10-35 percent of the total energy requirement.
For example, meat, eggs, fish, while from vegetable can be from the type of nuts.
Fats help to provide long-term energy, provide a satiety after a meal, help the formation of hormones, form cell membranes, transport vitamins A, D, E, K to the entire body.
Fat intake should be limited to about 20-35 percent per day, with a saturated fat intake limit of at least less than 10 percent. The types of fats to avoid are saturated fats, such as in butter, lard on beef, and chicken skin.
Cholesterol also needs to be limited to below 300 mg. Note also the intake of omega 3 fatty acids. According to AKG 2013, the need for omega 3 elderly is 1.6 grams.
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamin is a vital function in the body’s metabolism, which can not be produced by the body, while the mineral itself is a complementary element that helps in the process of growth and development in the body.
Examples: vegetables, fruits, mineral water, etc.
What about the water needs of the elderly?
The amount of body fluids will decrease with age, so the elderly at risk of dehydration. Moreover, if not accompanied by routine drinking water and many every day.
Water requirements have not changed since the age of 19 years and over, consuming more than 6 glasses a day to prevent dehydration.
As a guide to water requirements, every 1 mL of water is required for every calorie consumed with a minimum of 1500 kcal. For example, people with an energy requirement of 2000 kcal per day requires 2000 mL of water or 2 L or equivalent to 8 glasses per day.
Is there any other recommendation that the elderly would still eat?
Nutritional needs of the elderly and energy are very important but not only it, the elderly should also do the following suggestions.
- We recommend if the food by steaming, boiled, or baked.
- Reduce fried foods.
- Adjust food textures with capabilities. If it is difficult to swallow, it is best to serve food in soft form.
- Determine a regular eating schedule. For example, breakfast at 6 am, 9:00 am interlude, lunch at 12, 3 pm interlude, dinner at 6 pm, and 9 pm interlude.
- Limit foods that are sweet or contain high levels of sugar.
- Limit foods that are too spicy.
- Limit drinking coffee or tea.
- Limit consumption of foods that are too salty.
If the elderly do not want to eat too, does it need an appetite enhancer or dietary supplement?
If the elderly do not want to eat, should be searched know first cause. Is it because of pain, difficulty chewing, depression because every cause will be different handling.
For example, if the condition is due to difficulty chewing, may be given soft textured food. Not necessarily given a supplement. If there is anything you can do besides adding supplements, do it first.
Provision of appetite enhancing supplements will be given according to the condition of the elderly. This is done to prevent the occurrence of deficiency or lack of a substance getting worse.
Besides looking at the elderly nutrients need anything else?
Elderly still need exercise to maintain their health. However, you should consult your doctor if the condition is possible.
If allowed to do 2-3 times a week, this includes aerobic exercise and strength training. For strength training, do it with 8-10 motions with 8-12 reps done for a total of 20-30 minutes.
In addition to exercise, the elderly also need to monitor their weight regularly. Elderly also cannot be silent, do daily activities according to the ability to keep the body fit and prevent dementia. And definitely avoid stress and always happy.